Ear Nose and Throat (ENT)



The ear (auris) is the anatomical structure that functions as a hearing and contains the equilibrium organ.

It is examined in three parts:

External ear

Middle ear

Inner ear

External ear:

It consists of two parts. The outwardly projecting portion is called an ear pin. The ears function to determine the direction of sound. The channel that connects it to the middle ear makes the second part and takes the name of the external ear canal. This channel extending from the outside to the inside is about 2.5 cm and is twisted into the letter S. There are hairs called tragic on the cartilage. The glands in the canal and the dust on the ear as a result of the dust is formed. They can clog the channel and prevent hearing when the dirt is combined and dried.

At the end of the outer auditory canal, a pearl-colored tympanic membrane is found. Eardrum; separates the outer ear and the middle ear. Both sides are balanced with atmospheric pressure.

The air from the throat balances the inner face of the membrane through the Eustachian tube. Thus, the ear membrane is prevented from collapsing mastoideae) opens.

The three bone articulated by each other raise the amplitude of the sound waves that hit the tympanic membrane and transmit it to the fluid in the inner ear. The first bone in the eardrum is the malleus (hammer bone). The middle incus (anvil) and the end stapes (stirrup). The stirrup sits on the opening called oval window (fenestra vestibuli).

Middle ear: A six-walled bone cavity in the temporal bone. Thanks to the ”Eustachian tube ındaki in the front interior, it joins the bed. This is very important in balancing the internal and external pressures on the ear. The Eustachian tube is normally closed and opened in cases of swallowing and stretching.

The upper part of the ear is opened to the air-filled cells of the mastoid bone. This interest is important for the transfer of the middle ear infections to this bone.

One of the important parts in the middle ear is a chain of ossicles. Hammer, anvil and stirrup ossicles provide the connection of the inner ear with the membrane. These three ossicles are the smallest ossicles of the body, which increase the vibration to the membrane by 12.19 times and transmit it to the kemik perilymph un fluid of the inner ear.

The hammer bone is attached to the membrane. The anvil is in the middle and the stirrup is adhered to the inner wall. The point where the stirrup bone adheres takes the name oval window and transmits vibrations to the inner ear.

Inner Ear:

It is composed of very complex structures and it is the part that undertakes important functions. They all consist of three separate bones in the temporal bone. These bones are called bony labyrinth (labyrinthus osseus).

The bony labyrinth consists of three parts. The part where the oval window opens is called the vestibulum. The other two are cochlea (snail shell) and semicircular canals (canalis semisircularis osseus, semicircular canals).

Daliz center; In front of the snail, settles the semicircle channels behind. All three compartments are filled with liquid called perylene.

The bony labyrinth contains a labyrinthus membrane (labyrinthus membranaceus), which fits the folds of the labyrinth and is filled with endolenph. The compartments of the dice labyrinth matching the bony labyrinth parts are as follows: The part inside the vestibulum is utriculus vesacculus. The remaining part of the cochlearis in the Cochlea and the part of the semicircular canals are also called the ductus semisircularis.


Nose, anatomically, on the face between the forehead and the upper lip, protruding, two-hole sniffing and respiratory organ.

It is the smell organ. The nasal cavity opens out with two holes. On the other hand, it is connected to the sink. There are mucus layer, capillaries and hairs in the nose.

The inside of the nose is humid and moist and the air taken from outside is moistened and cleaned. Air is heated through capillaries.

Odor receptors and sensory nerves are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity. This region is called the yellow zone. A smell must be dissolved in mucus to be detected by the nose. Soluble substance stimulates olfactory cells.

The excitement is transmitted to the brain by sniffing. The air entering through the nose is filtered, heated and humidified. Filtering of the air taken, that is, filtering through the nose and mucus surface. The breathing air is heated by capillaries. Humidification of the air is caused by the secretion of mucus glands.


The second unit of the digestive system, the muscles of which are formed by the muscles of the throat, which are connected with the esophagus at the level of the lower throat cartilage.

The throat is approximately 12 cm long. The posterior throat wall is flat and vertical. No channels will open here. Throat; In the upper part of the front of the nasal cavities, the front of the oral cavity, the lower part of the larynx cavity opens.

There are tonsils in the area where the throat meets the oral cavity. On the roof of the throat, there are small and tonsile glands called throat adenoids.

On the upper part of the throat there is a pipe opening into the middle ear. When the nose and mouth are closed and the air is forced out, the air can pass through this canal and press the eardrum. Drugs that fall into the ear can flow through this canal (Eustachian tube) into the throat.

In the middle part of the throat, the respiratory tract and food path intersect. In a newborn child, the larynx is higher than the root of the tongue, so the baby can breathe while sucking milk.

Because drinking milk, throat cartilage cover through the side of the esophagus to reach the esophagus and thus there is no danger of going to the airways.

In adults, as the development progresses, the larynx also comes down, so the airway intersects through the meal. In adults, some reflexes are activated to prevent food from going to the airways and prevents the food from going to the air duct.


Yrd.Doç.Dr. Cenk TEKER

Ear Nose and Throat (ENT)


    Yrd.Doç.Dr. Kadir YÜCEBAŞ

    Ear Nose and Throat (ENT)


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